Superphosphate is a mixture of monosubstituted calcium phosphate and calcium salt of sulfuric acid. Belongs to the category of the most common and simple mineral-phosphorus fertilizers that are used during planting, and also, if necessary, provide complete additional nutrition to plants.
Composition and benefits of use
Depending on the type, the composition of superphosphate can vary and be supplemented with some components, which allows you to apply the most suitable fertilizer in each case, depending on the needs of the garden and crop culture and soil characteristics.
Superphosphate compounds are widely used on almost any type of soil in the spring. as the main pre-planting or pre-sowing fertilizer, as well as to create nutritious feeding at different stages of vegetation. Particularly high efficiency is noted when applied to alkaline and neutral soils.
The introduction of superphosphate not only contributes to the enrichment of the soil with a significant amount of phosphorus, but also allows you to make this element as accessible as possible for plants to absorb, which is especially important when growing tomatoes and potatoes. Tomatoes are especially in need of phosphorus at different stages of vegetation.by which this element is necessary to maintain cell structure and a high level of productivity. As a plant immunomodulator, phosphorus fertilizers contribute to increasing the plant's resistance to the most aggressive pathogenic microflora, and also help to quickly adapt to adverse external weather factors.
Knowing how one type of superphosphate differs from another, how to competently replace this popular fertilizer and how to properly prepare a standard liquid solution for plant nutrition, you can independently make the most effective nutritional composition.
Fertilizers for the garden: superphosphate
Types of Superphosphate
So that gardeners and gardeners have the opportunity to choose depending on the area of use, a mineral fertilizer called "Superphosphate" is available in several forms, convenient for use in the homestead and in the country.
|Type and name of superphosphate||Features of the composition||Application features|
|Monophosphate or simple||Contains no more than 20% phosphoric oxide||Enough budget option with limited efficiency|
|Granulated||Contains about ½ of the total phosphorus oxide and 30% calcium sulfate||Needed for feeding garden crops from the cruciferous family|
|Double||Calcium monophosphate, which can be very easily dissolved in water||Cost-effective fertilizer for use in the garden and in the garden|
|Ammoniated||Water-soluble composition based on 12% sulfur and 40-55% potassium sulfate||This fertilizer should be used to feed oilseeds and cruciferous garden crops|
|Magnesia||Contains about 14-19.5% phosphorus oxide and 1.5-2.5% manganese||It is especially important to use on carbonate chernozems, chestnut soils, is introduced into brown semi-desert soil in the Volga region and in the North Caucasus|
|Molybdenum||Contains 0.1% molybdenum and about 14-19.5% phosphorus oxide||Lack of molybdenum content is most often manifested on sandy and acidic soils|
|Boric||Contains 14-19.5% phosphorus oxide and 0.1-0.3% boron||Dicotyledonous crops most need such fertilizer|
|Triple||Contains up to 50% phosphorus oxide||Such phosphate complexes are best applied to feed garden crops from the cruciferous family|
Phosphorus is difficult to dissolve in water, but for top dressing it must be applied precisely in the liquid state. Instructions on how to cook hoods from superphosphate are quite simple:
- pour 20 tablespoons of granular fertilizer with three liters of boiling water, which allows phosphorus, while maintaining all its beneficial properties, to pass into a dispersible form easily digestible by plants;
- install a container with superphosphate solution in a fairly warm place for about 24-36 hours;
- it is recommended to stir the suspension often, which contributes to the most complete and fairly quick dissolution of the granules.
The resulting infusion is used in the preparation of the main fertilizer. For this purpose, 0.15 l of working solution should be combined with 10 l of tap water, 0.5 l of wood ash and 18-20 g of nitrogen fertilizer.
It is also allowed to dissolve superphosphate through the use of bio-bacterial preparations in the form of “Fitosporin” or “Humate”. It is recommended to feed tomato bushes at the beginning of the stage of active flowering, using about two liters per tomato bush. To feed other plants, you should adhere to the standard flow rate indicated in the table below.
When used on acidic soils, it is imperative to carry out preliminary deoxidation of the soil with lime or wood ash. The standard consumption of wood ash in this case is about 180-200 g per square meter. When using lime as a deoxidant, it is recommended to adhere to a flow rate of 500 g per square meter of soil. Superphosphate can be added in about a month and a half after the deoxidation measures.
When planting berries such as currants, gooseberries and raspberries, it is recommended to use the following compounds when filling the planting pits:
- compost or peat - one and a half buckets;
- superphosphate simple - 0.2 kg;
- potassium sulfate - 40 g;
- ground limestone - 0.1 kg.
A very good result is observed when using superphosphate fertilizers in combination with compost. It is not difficult to prepare such a nutritious mixture: it is enough to sprinkle each layer with superphosphate powder in compost boxes or heaps when laying plant debris. The standard consumption is about 100 g of powdered substance for every 100 kg of compostable plant mass.
Phosphorus starvation plants
In addition to spring application, crops need fertilizing with nitrogen and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, which must be learned to dose correctly depending on the type and condition of the plant, as well as the stage of vegetation and soil type.
The main morphological signs that indicate phosphorus starvation of plants are as follows:
- a sharp suspension of the growth processes of the aerial parts of the garden or horticultural culture;
- delay in terms of flowering and ripening of the crop;
- the manifestation of characteristic rust staining on leaf blades;
- twisting the edges of the leaves;
- the appearance of pinkish-purple staining of leaf veins;
- the formation of a characteristic and quite pronounced reddish-purple spot on the petioles and shoots;
- thinning and exposure of shoots with subsequent development of necrosis;
- the appearance of drying out and dark, almost black foliage;
- early fall foliage.
In this case, plants need emergency measures that will be aimed at ensuring the most balanced nutrition.
The rules of phosphate feeding
The need for phosphate fertilizers gradually increases during the vegetative development process and acquires peak values at the stages of inflorescence and flowering, as well as during the laying and ripening of fruits. This element also has a positive effect on the ripening of shoots of both garden and flower crops.
Double superphosphate, which is a concentrated phosphorus fertilizer based on the content of calcium dihydroorthophosphate monohydrate, is most popular among domestic gardeners and gardeners. In finished products from domestic manufacturers, the content of phosphoric anhydride can vary between 42-47%, which guarantees high efficiency.
|Name of culture||Features of the application of superphosphate||Recommended Consumption|
|Fruit trees||In the process of planting seedlings||0.4-0.6 kg per landing pit|
|Spring dressing after flowering||50 g per square meter|
|Potatoes||In the process of landing||About 3-4 g per one well|
|Fertilizing during the growing season||15 g per square meter of landing area|
|All vegetables, including root crops||Fertilizing during the growing season||Up to 20 g per square meter of landing area|
|Greenhouse crops||In the process of pre-plant digging with the addition of nitrogen and potassium compounds||In the range of 80-100 g per square meter of landing area|
In order to correctly calculate the application rate and easily fertilize with fertilizer in the right concentration, You can focus on the following indicators:
|Measured capacity||Powder Superphosphate in grams||Gram superphosphate||Double granular superphosphate in grams|
|Glass 200 ml||240||220||200|
Simple superphosphate is very well combined with nitrogen fertilizers, and double superphosphate is recommended to be supplemented with potash fertilizers. Superphosphate-based feed mixtures with the addition of sodium and potassium nitrate, urea, as well as ammonium nitrate should be prepared immediately before application. Superphosphate must not be mixed with lime components, as well as fertilizers such as calcium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, wood ash and phosphate rock.
How to prepare plants for winter: fertilizers
Superphosphates are universal fertilizers that are obtained from natural minerals as a result of the processing of the skeletal part of vertebrates, as well as iron and aluminum ore slag. Maximum efficiency in the application of this fertilizer is achieved only with strict adherence to the instructions for use.