Nephrolepis (Nephrolepis) - perennial ferns from the family of Davallievs, called by the merger of the two Greek words "kidney" and "scales." These are the most spectacular types of ferns that are bred as potted or ampelous indoor plants. They also cleanse the air of harmful chemicals and germs.
Signs and superstitions associated with fern
Around the most beautiful houseplants there are many conflicting signs and superstitions. They come down to the question of the harm or benefits of growing it. Supporters of the home fern believe that his presence improves the atmosphere in the house, as:
- Pacifies the obstinate and quick-tempered.
- Reconciles people of opposite temperaments.
- Attracts luck and money to the house, protects from their rash expenses.
- Gambling helps win.
Opponents of the fern believe that it draws energy for its growth from the environment. This opinion is confirmed by the ability of the plant in some cases to cause allergies due to the presence of many spores on it. Besides ferns can cause headaches, because absorbing oxygen at night, they emit carbon dioxide instead.
To avoid the negative impact of these generally useful plants, you need to place them next to a computer or TV, do not put them in the bedroom and maintain their healthy appearance.
Essential Care for Nephrolepis
Methods of propagation of indoor fern
Propagation of nephrolepis by spores at home is inefficient and time-consuming, therefore alternative methods applied:
- With the help of shoots. Root one or several shoots on which there are no leaves, bending to the ground in another pot and securing with wire. The earth should be wet all the time. Separation of a new plant from the mother is carried out when young leaves grow on it.
- Large bushes with numerous root buds can be divided and planted in different pots, which are covered with transparent material, placed in a warm and bright place. The soil is constantly moistened, and the seedlings, having removed the coating for a while, are aired.
- Some varieties of ferns are propagated by tubers, separated from the main plant and planted in the ground. This is the easiest way in which all varietal characteristics of plants are saved.
Nephrolepis transplant after purchase
A couple of weeks after purchase, the flower, which is usually found in a special transportation mixture, must be transplanted into a pot with loose and nutritious soil. It consists of equal parts of peat, sheet land and sand. You can also enrich it with humus and sod mixture.
It is recommended that superphosphate (a couple of spoons per pot) be added to the soil, although some growers are advised to wait a bit with fertilizer until the plants adapt to a new place. A good supplement is bone meal (the same amount) and charcoal.
Although ferns love moist soil, they are detrimental to stagnation of water and its acidification as a result. Therefore, abundant watering of plants must be combined with a full drainage layer in the pot where they grow. The top of the rhizome of nephrolepis during its transplantation should remain on the surface of the earth, Do not allow drying of its lower leaves.
Homeland of the plant and its botanical features
Nephrolepis belongs to plants epiphytes, which are ubiquitous in nature in tropical forests, in addition, in Japan and New Zealand. Its fluffy, juicy green shoots (vayi) form lush, meter-long bundles. They can be much more massive. And the rhizomes from which they appear are small.
Vayas are composed of many small leaves sitting on thin branches in a checkerboard pattern. On the underside of the leaves in the summer there are flat brown grains - spores that, under natural conditions, sprout to the ground.
How to transplant nephrolepis
Types and varieties of fern nephrolepis
Several dozen varieties of indoor ferns are known, not one of them is already natural.
Widely distributed in floriculture. Its almost meter long vayy are single-pinnate, arched-hung. They can be up to fifty leaflets. Plants are resistant to short-term drying of the soil. There are varieties with wavy leaves, with their multiple cirrus.
Curly nephrolepis (curly)
Derived from the previous view. He has complex cirrus dissected vayi, the leaves of which are also dissected, they have wavy or curled edges.
Nephrolepis Boston (Boston)
Named so because of the city where it was withdrawn. The flower is famous for the fact that before its appearance, nephrolepis grew only in greenhouse conditions. In ordinary houses, they did not have enough heat. Boston is the first cold-resistant species of tropical fern, from which other varieties with similar characteristics came. He has long, curved leaves with a wavy border.
It differs in a light shade, its leaves are bent upwards, partially overlap each other. It is easier than others to carry dry air. Propagated by stalls or lateral axillary shoots.
Nephrolepis Green Lady
It stands out with thick leaves and a sharp tip. They are openwork and wavy, gracefully drooping and lush. This species loves shading and artificial lighting.
Migrant from Central America. It has unusually long and rather stiff leaves. It looks spectacular like an ampelous plant suspended from the ceiling.
A variety of Boston type light shade with a small crown volume (the length of the waya is slightly more than half a meter). Due to its compact size and lush crown, the Sonata looks like a ball. Prefers light shading., not afraid of artificial light, does not like heat and dry air.
Variety variety of elevated nephrolepis, in the Thai version it is called Green Dragon or Dragon Tile (dragon tail). Its delicate, densely arranged leaves with carved edges are somewhat reminiscent of this prehistoric reptile. Vayy has compact, upright.
Care for nephrolepis at home
A homely fern is an unpretentious plant adapted to normal cultivation. There are some features of caring for him.
Location and lighting
A tropical flower loves diffused lighting, does not tolerate direct rays. It feels best on the east and west sides of the building. In the southern orientation requires shading on sunny days.
At times it likes to be in the fresh air under the conditions of its protection from direct sun, rain and drafts. In winter, it also needs lighting; fluorescent lamps placed half a meter away from plants are suitable for this. Daylight hours should last at least 8 hours.
Humidity and temperature
In the summer, the tropicana loves temperatures between 20-24 degrees. If it is higher, then additional spraying is necessary. In winter, in a well-heated room, the temperature regime is similar to summer. But it is better that the winter temperature differs from the summer by a dozen degrees. The plants do not tolerate heat well. When cooling below 12 degrees, watering should be limited.
The optimal humidity for nephrolepis is 50-60 %%. Therefore, it is important for him to constantly (once or twice a day) spraying. Water must be defended, it must be warm. To increase humidity, use a pallet with wet moss or expanded clay. However, the water level in it should be below the bottom of the pot standing there.
Like other tropical plants, fern loves a warm shower. This and the removal of dust from the leaves and moisturizing. But water should not erode the ground, so the pot needs to be covered with a film.
In spring and summer, twice a month, plant nutrition with mineral and organic fertilizers is needed. Use them in gentle doses (a quarter of what is indicated in the instructions). Do the same with complex top dressing. Home remedies, such as chicken droppings, are bred in a ratio of 1 to 50.
In winter, top dressing is not needed, because it causes disease. Recently transplanted plants are also not fed up to their full adaptation.
Home fern loves moisture, does not tolerate prolonged drying of an earthen coma. Stagnant water causes root decay and plant diseases.
Ideal for irrigation is rain or snow water. In summer, watering should be daily, in autumn - twice less, and in winter - no more than once a week. In this case, spraying is carried out in the same way as in the summer.
Under natural conditions, ferns do not have a dormant period. Indoor, it lasts half the fall and almost all winter. This is due to a decrease in light and humidity (during heating).
Plants are placed in a bright and cool place, maintaining their constant moisture. At this time, they almost do not grow. But in winter it is important to preserve the leaves that have grown before that.
Problems When Growing Nephrolepis
The specificity of growing a tropical plant creates certain difficulties in caring for it, affecting its decorative purpose. To cope with them, you need to know what they arise from.
What to do if nephrolepis crumbles
Lack of moisture causes the leaves to dry, starting at the tips. This also happens due to overcooling of plants at low temperatures, drafts or irrigation with cold and not settled water.
In order to prevent diseases and death of the Tropicans, all harmful factors must be removed. Plants should be rearranged in a comfortable place for them.
Why does nephrolepis dry
Drying of indoor ferns occurs due to a lack of moisture, drying of an earthen coma and a lack of light. In this case, moisten the earth and rearrange the flower in a brighter place.
We identify and eliminate the causes of yellowing of foliage
It happens that the leaves of the nephrolepis turn yellow. This happens due to dry air, due to excessive lighting and watering. Nutrient deficiency also affects leaves. A possible reason for their yellowing may be a close flowerpot.
All these care deficiencies need to be addressed in a timely manner: strengthen nutrition, reduce watering, move the plant from south to north. And from a small pot to relocate it to a larger one.
Indoor fern diseases
Domestic fern with improper care is affected by diseases. Blackened leaves indicate that a fungus has wound up in the roots from excessive watering.
Getting rid of gray rot is not easy. In this case, transplanting the plant into loose soil will help. And before that, it is necessary to inspect the roots and trim their damaged parts. Splices should be sprinkled with activated carbon powder.
Pests of Nephrolepis
Tropicana is susceptible to parasites. A sign of defeat by its scabies is the yellowing of young, not yet developed leaves. The growth retardation of nephrolepis indicates the hooking of nematodes. This happens when watering plants with cold water. And in a dry atmosphere, thrips, a spider mite and the same scale shield develop well.
It is difficult to get rid of parasites on plants with a lush crown (and with a nematode, it is impossible). For this purpose, rubbing the leaves with alcohol, a soap solution, spraying with Actellik, Karbofos are used. But it is best not to bring the plants to a deplorable state, observing all the rules for caring for them.
Nephrolepis in the interior of the house
Nephrolepis is grown in indoor floriculture for hanging in baskets, placed on decorative stands, it is used as a tapeworm, put on a windowsill. This fast-growing flower can double in a year. It is a natural filter for air and a neutralizer of negative energy.