The main groups of fungi are represented by woody, litter, humus, and mycorrhizal species. Wood mushrooms that infect wood during the life process are classified as wood-destroying or xylotrophs.
Characterization of wood mushrooms
The main feature of this group is the ability, through special enzymatic components, to cleave wood polysaccharides, including cellulose, followed by the use of the obtained substances in nutrition and development.
In the process of growth and development of mycelium inside the wood, the concentration of carbon dioxide increases significantly, and the mycelium develops much faster than competing organisms. The presence of such a feature makes the cultivation of wood mushrooms a fairly simple and profitable event.
There are both edible and inedible species. In order to collect xylotrophs, you need to know their names, and also take into account which main varieties grow on a particular territory of our country.
Main views and description
Mycelium or mycelium of such species is not located on the root system of the tree, but under the bark or directly inside the wood. For the most part, the product is edible and does not contain toxic substances that can cause poisoning. However, only a few species are most widely used in the culinary of our country.
|Oyster mushroom||Pleurotus ostreatus||It grows on all types of hardwood, except oak. Fruiting waves, in spring and autumn||Ideal for artificial cultivation. In vivo massively grow in the Crimea|
|Shiitake||Lentinula edodes||This species has a competitive advantage over molds on oak, as the mycelium secretes a special enzyme, tannase, which promotes the decomposition of tannins||The most cultivated mushroom in the world, used for medicinal purposes and in demand in cooking|
|Black Chinese Mushroom or Muer||Auricularia||They have a very delicate and silky flesh, but a little crunchy||Thin and brittle, mainly grow on trees in China, Thailand and Vietnam|
|Lagoon||Inonotus obliquus||It is formed as a result of infection of wood with the parasitic fungus Inonotus obliquus in the birch forests of Russia, Eastern Europe and Korea.||It is not poisonous, but is not used for food purposes. Medicinal raw materials are birch growths|
|Tinder funnel sulfur yellow||Laetiporus sulphureus||As a rule, bears fruit once a year, but in the presence of favorable conditions it is able to form three crops per season, forming fruiting bodies until late autumn||Fresh or young specimen on a bright, yellowish tree|
orange and clearly visible even a few tens of meters
|Curly Mushroom or Griffol||Grifola frondosa||Fruit bodies form from the end of June until the last days of September in broad-leaved forests. In our country it is quite rare and not annually||Tasty and healthy, fast-growing and white-rot edible edible tree mushroom|
|Tinder funnel varnished or Reishi||Ganoderma lucidum||It grows almost everywhere on the basis of weakened or dying deciduous trees||The cultivation of this edible species is made exclusively for medical purposes.|
|Winter honey agaric||Flammulina velutipes||Fruiting long, undulating, even during winter thaws||The only species capable of bearing fruit in the home|
The benefits of wood mushrooms
The benefits of almost all varieties are a very rich vitamin composition, and also due to the high content of useful components:
- a set of enzymes prevents the formation of blood clots;
- nicotinic acid has a beneficial effect and has a restorative effect on organs and tissues;
- high polysaccharide content reduces the risk of developing malignant and benign tumors;
- balanced vitamin composition helps to increase immunity.
Wood mushrooms are excellent immunomodulators, they can be used in the prevention of various cardiovascular diseases, they are very useful for hypertensive events and help lower cholesterol.
The product is very rich in proteins, so it is appreciated by dietitians, and high levels of fiber and gelatin can have a beneficial effect on digestion and intestinal motility. Low calorie content allows the use of mushroom dishes in weight loss diets.
Tinder fungus scaly: characteristic
In some cases, wood mushrooms can harm the body and have a negative effect on humans:
- high chitin content can cause indigestion, so do not overeat mushroom dishes;
- you can not use mushroom dishes for people prone to allergic reactions and with individual intolerance to mushrooms;
- the use of mushroom dishes for children of preschool and school age, as well as pregnant and lactating women, even in a minimal amount is undesirable;
- Do not use mushrooms for food to people suffering from exacerbation of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
The mushroom season for the vast majority of fans of "silent hunting" continues until the onset of severe autumn frosts, but some species of tree mushrooms grow even in the first winter month. It is best to collect away from busy roads, major cities and industrial facilities, since fruiting bodies absorb and retain all the harmful substances and components contained in both soil and water or in the air very well. For the preparation of various dishes, it is advisable to use young specimens that have a more saturated mushroom aroma and a delicate taste.
The preparation of dishes from wood mushrooms does not differ from the preparation of bedding, humus and mycorrhizal species. Such a mushroom as Muir is used almost everywhere, and its fruiting bodies are one of the components of sauces, soups, meat and fish dishes. The product is very suitable for salads and baking., it can be baked, fried, boiled, dried, as well as salt and pickle. Almost all varieties have excellent taste, rich and refined aroma.
You can also dry these mushrooms. Properly dried fruit bodies are an excellent seasoning for soups, meat and fish dishes, poultry and vegetable side dishes. The product is most popular in Asian and Eastern classical cuisine, but in recent years it has been increasingly used in modern European cuisine. In many countries, a very original Korean salad with wood mushrooms is especially in demand, which is quite simple to prepare:
- dried black wood mushrooms should be poured with boiling water for a quarter of an hour, which contributes to an increase in fruiting bodies by about three to four times;
- mushrooms that have grown in size should be washed in room temperature water, cut off the solid base and cut into small strips;
- onions should be cleaned and, sliced in half rings, fry in a hot frying pan in oil until half ready;
- add mushrooms to the onion, as well as salt, sugar and a small amount of table vinegar, then mix and simmer for another quarter hour under the lid.
Ready mushroom salad should be put on a dish and refrigerated. Such a salad is capable of preserving its taste and healthy properties for a week in a refrigerator. The use of ram mushroom also has some features. Only young, not yet darkened specimens are suitable for cooking. Adults are not able to harm the human body, but also do not have high nutritional qualities or a pleasant taste.
Judas ear: tree mushroom
Honey mushrooms are also cultivated in Japan and Korea, on an industrial scale. The product is used fresh, after short boiling, pickled and salted. However, boiled fruit bodies have a slippery surface, which does not always look attractive. It should be noted that a significant part of the species needs preliminary heat treatment - boiling. A huge number of dishes can be prepared on the basis of wood mushrooms, and their variety is limited only by the culinary imagination of the cook.